TECHSHIP IS A GLOBAL SUPPLIER OF WIRELESS COMPONENTS

Register
FAQs /
Question

How can we use the Linux NetworkManager and ModemManager applications that are built into many recent Linux desktop distributions (such as Ubuntu) with Telit LM940 cellular module?

Solution

When using NetworkManager and ModemManager that are pre-installed in many common Linux distributions, best compatibility can be reached when the Telit module is set to expose MBIM interface endpoints to the host system over the USB interface. The MBIM interface is often automatically detected and loaded without the need to configure and add additional drivers to the kernel via rebuild.

By default the Telit LM940 module is set to expose the QMI interface as well as a set of serial interfaces.
You can change this by sending the module the following AT command on the Modem serial interface:
AT#USBCFG=2
(please note ModemManager can occupy and interfere on the Modem/AT serial interface so it is recommended to stop its process first)
This will reset the module and when module is re-detected in the host system again, the endpoints exposed have changed and the cdc_mbim driver should have been automatically loaded for the cellular module, this can be verified with the command:
lsusb -t

By restarting ModemManager and NetworkManager or the complete host system, the LM940 cellular module should be automatically detected by both ModemManager as well as NetworkManager.

The graphical user interface in the Linux operating system can now be used to configure the PIN code and your network operators APN connection details and establish the data connection.

If you want to control NetworkManager by Linux command line, a guide and example is well documented in the following guides:

ModemManager:
https://docs.ubuntu.com/core/en/stacks/network/modem-manager/docs/configuring-cellular-connections

NetworkManager:
https://docs.ubuntu.com/core/en/stacks/network/network-manager/docs/configure-cellular-connections

Please note that DHCP clients are most often not supported for the cellular modules when MBIM interface is used, therefore this IP connection information should be collected via the ModemManager from the modules data bearer details. NetworkManager will do this automatically for you, so it is recommended to use NetworkManager together with ModemManager also.

Recently added

Question

How to use NetworkManager and ModemManager in Linux to automatically establish and maintain a cellular data connection?

Solution

Using NetworkManager and ModemManager in Linux to automatically establish and maintain the cellular data connection

In this FAQ we will show how to set up NetworkManager to automatically configure, establish and maintain the cellular data connection in your system.

NetworkManager and ModemManager are open source tool for Linux to manage several types of networks and interfaces such as ethernet, wifi, etc. It can also manage cellular WWAN interfaces through the ModemManager tool.
It is hosted by the Freedesktop.org community and driven by Aleksander Morgado and other contributors. please visit https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/NetworkManager and https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/ModemManager/ for latest information, source code, API reference manuals, debugging tips, contribution, mailing list etc.

ModemManager is capable of communicating over several types of device control channels such as QMI/RMNET, MBIM, MODEM / AT command etc. But support for vendor proprietary or out-of-kernel drivers are limited. Such drivers are gobinet, simcom_wwan and other drivers provided by the vendors directly.

Many Linux distributions have NetworkManager and ModemManager pre-installed or they can typically easily be installed through the systems package manager.
In Ubuntu for example apt can install it for you by command:
apt install network-manager

Check with commands below that you have both tools installed in system and their versions.
NetworkManager -V
ModemManager -V

ModemManager (and NetworkManager) are continuously developed for better compatibility with the cellular devices, therefore it is recommend to use a recent version of the tools and in case of problem situations, evaluate the latest versions from source and check the mailing list archives for possible discussions on the problem experienced.

Keep in mind that NetworkManager and ModemManager projects are not directly developed or driven by the cellular device vendors and the compatibility with the device you aim to use can be limited. Some vendors contribute with code to make their devices fully compatible, while others don't. Many cellular devices can be set to expose standardized types of USB network interface and control channel such as MBIM interface by USB-IF or the Qualcomm proprietary interface QMI that ModemManager will try to identify, and often manage to work successfully with but there are exceptions also.

Both NetworkManager and ModemManager have command line interfaces (nmcli and mmcli respectively) where you can interact with the management tools.

Relate to the following FAQ if you want more details for using ModemManager only to configure and control the cellular device but manually establish, maintain the connection and network interface IP address details.
How-to guide: control and set up a data connection in Linux using ModemManager as connection manager?

Have ModemManager list all the cellular device it has detected. Here we use the Alcatel IK41 series with MBIM interface in this example:
mmcli --list-modems
/org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0 [Alcatel] Mobilebroadband

General details and status of them modem can be listed with "--modem" option.
mmcli --modem=0
-----------------------------
General | dbus path: /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0
| device id: 998e478c5b14c75e16bffe6abaacabef22fb2f5b
-----------------------------
Hardware | manufacturer: Alcatel
| model: Mobilebroadband
| firmware revision: MPSS.JO.2.0.2.c1.7-00004-9607_
| carrier config: default
| h/w revision: 0
| supported: gsm-umts, lte
| current: gsm-umts, lte
| equipment id:
-----------------------------
System | device: /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:14.0/usb3/3-1
| drivers: option1, cdc_mbim
| plugin: Generic
| primary port: cdc-wdm0
| ports: cdc-wdm0 (mbim), ttyUSB0 (at), ttyUSB2 (at), wwan0 (net),
| ttyUSB1 (qcdm)
-----------------------------
Status | lock: sim-pin
| unlock retries: sim-pin (3)
| state: locked
| power state: on
| signal quality: 0% (cached)
-----------------------------
Modes | supported: allowed: 2g; preferred: none
| allowed: 3g; preferred: none
| allowed: 4g; preferred: none
| allowed: 2g, 3g; preferred: 3g
| allowed: 2g, 3g; preferred: 2g
| allowed: 2g, 4g; preferred: 4g
| allowed: 2g, 4g; preferred: 2g
| allowed: 3g, 4g; preferred: 3g
| allowed: 3g, 4g; preferred: 4g
| allowed: 2g, 3g, 4g; preferred: 4g
| allowed: 2g, 3g, 4g; preferred: 3g
| allowed: 2g, 3g, 4g; preferred: 2g
| current: allowed: 2g, 3g, 4g; preferred: 2g
-----------------------------
Bands | supported: egsm, dcs, pcs, g850, utran-1, utran-8, eutran-1, eutran-3,
| eutran-7, eutran-8, eutran-20, eutran-28
| current: egsm, dcs, pcs, g850, utran-1, utran-8, eutran-1, eutran-3,
| eutran-7, eutran-8, eutran-20, eutran-28
-----------------------------
IP | supported: ipv4, ipv6, ipv4v6
-----------------------------
SIM | dbus path: /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/SIM/0

Check that the cellular device is managed by NetworkManager by not having state "unmanaged" listed for it.
nmcli device status
DEVICE TYPE STATE CONNECTION
cdc-wdm0 gsm disconnected --
enp3s0 ethernet unmanaged --
lo loopback unmanaged --

Now you should create a connection profile in NetworkManager for your specific network carrier and SIM card with the "nmcli connection add" command:
For example:
nmcli connection add type gsm ifname '*' con-name '3-sweden' apn 'data.tre.se' connection.autoconnect yes gsm.pin 0000

- type is gsm for all typical cellular connections unless it is of cdma type.
- ifname is the control interface name, in this case cdc-wdm0, wildcard can be used also to have it autoselect.
- con-name is the profile name you want to give it.
- apn is provided by your network carrier and tells the modem what attach point it should use for the data connection.
- connection.autoconnect set to yes will make NetworkManager always try to auto connect and maintain this profile connection.
- gsm.pin lets you provide a pin code for the SIM card, that NetworkManager will try to use if PIN check is enabled for SIM card.

There are several additional commands and attributes available such as username and password settings for the APNs etc. Refer to the NetworkManager help and manual pages for full details on the commands.

If successful you should receive a reply similar to this one:
Connection '3-sweden' (cad6fcbf-2cb1-4796-b7e6-67b9f9635aef) successfully added.

You can check the status now by command:
nmcli device status
DEVICE TYPE STATE CONNECTION
cdc-wdm0 gsm connected 3-sweden
enp3s0 ethernet unmanaged --
lo loopback unmanaged --

Where connected should be listed as state if the connection establishment was successful.

If the connection is not successful or you want more details about the device and connection you can check commands:

You can list the current status with command:
nmcli radio
WIFI-HW WIFI WWAN-HW WWAN
enabled enabled enabled enabled

nmcli device show cdc-wdm
GENERAL.DEVICE: cdc-wdm0
GENERAL.TYPE: gsm
GENERAL.HWADDR: (unknown)
GENERAL.MTU: 1500
GENERAL.STATE: 100 (connected)
GENERAL.CONNECTION: 3-sweden
GENERAL.CON-PATH: /org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/ActiveConnection/18
IP4.ADDRESS[1]: 2.68.73.130/30
IP4.GATEWAY: 2.68.73.129
IP4.ROUTE[1]: dst = 2.68.73.128/30, nh = 0.0.0.0, mt = 700
IP4.ROUTE[2]: dst = 0.0.0.0/0, nh = 2.68.73.129, mt = 700
IP4.DNS[1]: 80.251.201.177
IP4.DNS[2]: 80.251.201.178
IP6.ADDRESS[1]: 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11:1060:3dff:feac:e92f/64
IP6.ADDRESS[2]: 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11:6474:7254:7b72:eb09/64
IP6.GATEWAY: 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11:21e6:9049:6cfb:8ac3
IP6.ROUTE[1]: dst = ff00::/8, nh = ::, mt = 256, table=255
IP6.ROUTE[2]: dst = 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11::/64, nh = ::, mt = 700
IP6.ROUTE[3]: dst = ::/0, nh = fe80::21e6:9049:6cfb:8ac3, mt = 1024
IP6.ROUTE[4]: dst = 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11::/64, nh = ::, mt = 256
IP6.ROUTE[5]: dst = ::/0, nh = 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11:21e6:9049:6cfb:8ac3, mt = 700
IP6.DNS[1]: 2a02:aa0::55
IP6.DNS[2]: 2a02:aa0::56

nmcli connection show
NAME UUID TYPE DEVICE
3-sweden e946017f-2e9c-477b-89ad-4c31e7331d65 gsm cdc-wdm0

Ifconfig should now show the related IP address details already set to the network interface by NetworkManager:
ifconfig
wwan0: flags=4291 mtu 1500
inet 2.68.73.130 netmask 255.255.255.252 broadcast 2.68.73.131
inet6 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11:6474:7254:7b72:eb09 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x0
inet6 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11:1060:3dff:feac:e92f prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x0
ether 12:60:3d:ac:e9:2f txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet)
RX packets 186 bytes 10886 (10.8 KB)
RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0
TX packets 5 bytes 480 (480.0 B)
TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0

You can now for example test the connection over the network interface by sending ping requests.
Testing IPV4 connection:
ping -4 -I wwan0 8.8.8.8
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) from 2.68.73.130 wwan0: 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=1 ttl=118 time=55.8 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=2 ttl=118 time=45.4 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=3 ttl=118 time=42.9 ms
--- 8.8.8.8 ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 42.918/48.053/55.845/5.601 ms

Testing IPV6 connection: (if your cellular device, network subscription and APN supports it)
ping -6 -I wwan0 2600::
PING 2600::(2600::) from 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11:1060:3dff:feac:e92f wwan0: 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=1 ttl=46 time=172 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=2 ttl=46 time=171 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=3 ttl=46 time=169 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=4 ttl=46 time=168 ms
--- 2600:: ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3004ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 167.921/170.037/172.272/1.651 ms

The connection is successful and automatic reconnect is working when testing to unplug and plug in the device again.
For additional configurations, commands and available attributes, please relate to the manual pages for NetworkManager and ModemManager.

Related products
Huawei ME909u-521 - EU/ASIA
Huawei ME909u-521 Mini PCI Express - EU/ASIA
Huawei ME909u-523D Mini PCI Express - US - AT&T
Huawei MS2131i-8 USB-stick
Huawei ME909s-821 mPCIe
Huawei ME909s-821 LGA
Huawei ME909s-120 mPCIe EU
Huawei ME909s-120 LGA EU
SimCom SIM7100E LTE SMT EU
SimCom SIM7100E LTE mPCIe EU
SimCom SIM7100A LTE mPCIe US
SimCom SIM7100C LTE mPCIe China
SimCom SIM7230 LTE mPCIe EU
Sierra Wireless MC7455 LTE Cat 6
Sierra Wireless EM7455 LTE Cat 6
SimCom SIM7100E LTE mPCIe SIM
Sierra Wireless MC7430 mPCIe
Sierra Wireless EM7430 LTE Cat 6
SIMCom SIM7500A LTE SMT US
SIMCom SIM7500E LTE SMT EU
SIMCom SIM7500E LTE mPCIe EU
SIMCom SIM7500SA LTE mPCIe Audio
Telit HE910-G HSPA+, GPS, mPCIe
Telit HE910-G-SIM HSPA+, GPS, miniPCIe, SIM card holder
Telit HE910-D HSPA+, miniPCIe, Global
Telit HE910-D-SIM HSPA+, miniPCIe, SIM card holder
Telit LM940A11 LTE CAT-11, GPS, mPCIe
Telit LE910-EU V2 LTE CAT-4, mPCIe
Telit LE910-SV V2 LTE CAT-4, Verizon, mPCIe
Telit LE910-NA V2 LTE CAT-4, AT T, TM, mPCIe
Telit LE910-AU V2 LTE CAT-4, Telstra, mPCIe
Telit HE910-GL SIM UMTS, miniPCIe, SIM card holder
Telit HE910-G (Voice) HSPA+ LGA
Telit HE910-DG HSPA+ LGA
Telit HE910-EUD HSPA LGA
Telit LE910-NA1 LTE CAT-1 LGA
Telit LE910-EU1 LTE CAT-1 LGA
Telit LE910-SV1 LTE CAT-1 LGA
Telit LE910-EU V2 LTE CAT-4 LGA
Telit LE910-NA V2 LTE CAT-4 LGA
Telit LE910D1-E1 LTE CAT-1 LGA
Huawei MS2372h-153 LTE USB Dongle EU
SIMCom SIM7600E-H LTE SMT EU
SIMCom SIM7600E-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe EU
Sierra Wireless EM7565 LTE CAT-12
SIMCom SIM7600E-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe SIM
Huawei MS2372h-517 LTE USB Dongle US
SIMCom SIM7600A-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe Audio
Huawei MS2372h-607 LTE USB Dongle Asia
Telit LE910-NA V2 LTE CAT-4, S.SKU, mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600SA-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600A-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe US
SIMCom SIM7600V-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe Audio Verizon
Fibocom NL668-EAU mPCIe LTE CAT-4
SIMCom SIM7600SA-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe with SIM holder
SIMCom SIM7600E LTE CAT-1 mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600SA LTE CAT-1 mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600E-H LTE CAT 4 -mPCIE with Audio
Sierra Wireless EM7511 LTE CAT-12
Sierra Wireless EM7565, CAT-12, M.2 CBRS Enabled
Fibocom NL678-E mPCIe LTE CAT-6
SIMCom SIM7600A-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe-SIM
Sierra Wireless MC-WP7607 LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
Telit LE910C4-NF LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
Telit LE910-NA V2 LTE CAT-4, S.SKU LGA
Telit LE910B1-NA S.SKU
Telit LE910C1-NS LTE CAT-1 Sprint mPCIe
Telit LE910-SVL LTE CAT-1
Telit HE910-GL HSPA+ LGA
SIMCom SIM7906E LTE CAT-6 M.2
SIMCom SIM7906E LTE CAT-6 mPCIe
Telit HE910-NAD HSPA+ LGA
Telit LE910-SVG LTE CAT-3 LGA
Telit HE910-NAR HSPA LGA
Telit HE910-D HSPA+ LGA
Telit LE910C1-NA LTE CAT-1 AT&T LGA
Telit LE910C1-NS LTE CAT-1 Sprint LGA
Telit LE910-NAG LTE CAT-3 AT&T LGA
Telit LE910-SVG LTE CAT-3 mPCIe
Telit LE910-NVG LTE CAT-3 LGA
SIMCom SIM7600G-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
Telit LE910-NA1 S.SKU
Telit LE910-JN1
Telit LE910C1-AP
Telit LE910C1-EU
Telit LE910B1-NA
Telit LE910B1-SA
Telit LE910-AU V2
Telit LE910-SV V2
Telit LE910B4-NA
Telit LE910C4-NF
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910-SV1)
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910-EU1)
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910-JN1)
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910-NA1)
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910C1-AP)
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910C1-NA)
Telit LE910C1-EU LTE CAT-1 mPCIe
Telit LE910C4-EU LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
Telit LE910C4-EU LTE CAT-4 mPCIe SIM
Telit LE910C1-NF
SIMCOM SIM8200EA-M.2 5G
Telit FN980m 5G M.2
Telit LM940A11, HW Rev. 2, LTE CAT-11, GPS, mPCIe
Telit LE910C4-NF LTE CAT-4 mPCIe SIM
SIMCom SIM7912G LTE CAT-12 M.2
Telit LM960A18 LTE CAT-18 mPCIe
Telit LE910C1-EU LTE CAT-1 mPCIe SIM
Telit LE910C1-AP LTE CAT-1 mPCIe SIM
Telit LE910C1-NF LTE CAT-1 mPCIe
Telit LE910C4-AP LTE CAT-4 mPCIe SIM
Telit LE910C4-CN LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
Sierra Wireless EM7411 NAM
Sierra Wireless MC7411 NAM
Sierra Wireless EM7421 EMEA/APAC
Sierra Wireless MC7421 EMEA/APAC
Sierra Wireless EM7431 Japan
Sierra Wireless MC7431 Japan
Huawei MS2372h-158 LTE USB Dongle EU
Huawei MS2372h-518 LTE USB Dongle US
Huawei MS2372h-608 LTE USB Dongle Asia
Huawei ME909s-120p V2 mPCIe
Huawei ME909s-120 V2 LGA
Sierra Wireless MC-WP7610 LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600G-H R2 mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600NA-H mPCIe
Telit FN980 5G M.2 sub-6
Sierra Wireless EM7690 LTE CAT-20
Alcatel IK41VE LTE USB Dongle EU
Alcatel IK41US LTE USB Dongle US
Alcatel IK41CQ LTE USB Dongle APAC
Alcatel IK41UD LTE USB Dongle LATAM
Alcatel IK41UC LTE USB Dongle NA
Question

How to integrate the Alcatel IK41 series M2M LTE USB sticks in Linux using MBIM USB mode?

Solution

The Alcatel IK41 series M2M LTE Cat4 USB stick connects to the host system using USB2 data interface and will appear in the system with USB Vendor ID: 1bbb and Product ID: 00b6 in default USB mode.
The device expose a USB MBIM network interface (Mobile Broadband Interface Model) and three usb serial interfaces. It is commonly used by Windows 8/10 for connecting mobile broadband devices, but can also be used in Linux environments.

(The device can also be set to a USB mode exposing the RNDIS network interface instead of MBIM interface. This is what Alcatel recommends for Linux systems. See the attached Alcatel software integration guide document below or find it at the Techship product pages.)

This FAQ describes the USB mode where MBIM type of network interface is used.

Typically the IK41 series USB VID and PID ID and interfaces are already automatically detected by the correct Linux in-kernel driver modules cdc_mbim for network and option for serial interfaces, if a fairly recent version of the kernel is used.

Checking in the Linux diagnostic messages output you should find the following rows if device is detected correctly:
dmesg
usb 3-1: new high-speed USB device number 5 using xhci_hcd
usb 3-1: New USB device found, idVendor=1bbb, idProduct=00b6, bcdDevice=10.00
usb 3-1: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
usb 3-1: Product: Mobilebroadband
usb 3-1: Manufacturer: Alcatel
usb 3-1: SerialNumber: 1234567890ABCDE
option 3-1:1.0: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected
usb 3-1: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB0
option 3-1:1.1: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected
usb 3-1: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB1
option 3-1:1.2: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected
usb 3-1: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB2
cdc_mbim 3-1:1.3: cdc-wdm0: USB WDM device
cdc_mbim 3-1:1.3 wwan0: register 'cdc_mbim' at usb-0000:00:14.0-1, CDC MBIM, 12:60:3d:ac:e9:2f

Usb-devices tool should show the following details for the IK41 series:
usb-devices
T: Bus=03 Lev=01 Prnt=01 Port=00 Cnt=01 Dev#= 5 Spd=480 MxCh= 0
D: Ver= 2.00 Cls=00(>ifc ) Sub=00 Prot=00 MxPS=64 #Cfgs= 1
P: Vendor=1bbb ProdID=00b6 Rev=10.00
S: Manufacturer=Alcatel
S: Product=Mobilebroadband
S: SerialNumber=1234567890ABCDE
C: #Ifs= 5 Cfg#= 1 Atr=80 MxPwr=500mA
I: If#=0x0 Alt= 0 #EPs= 3 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=00 Prot=00 Driver=option
I: If#=0x1 Alt= 0 #EPs= 2 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=ff Prot=ff Driver=option
I: If#=0x2 Alt= 0 #EPs= 3 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=00 Prot=00 Driver=option
I: If#=0x3 Alt= 0 #EPs= 1 Cls=02(commc) Sub=0e Prot=00 Driver=cdc_mbim
I: If#=0x4 Alt= 1 #EPs= 2 Cls=0a(data ) Sub=00 Prot=02 Driver=cdc_mbim

If no driver modules are tied to the interfaces, relate to the following general FAQ for details about the Linux kernel configs to have enabled at build to support most common wwan driver modules:
Common Linux kernel modules and configs necessary for communicating with cellular modules over USB interface

MBIM type of network interfaces allow for both data and control messages to be passed between host system and cellular device. For example the open source library libmbim and command line interface mbimcli can be used to parse the raw MBIM protocol messages.
The open source NetworkManager and ModemManager tools are capable of controlling the cellular devices over MBIM and establish and maintain the data connections.

For more details on NetworkManager and ModemManager usage, refer to FAQ:
Using NetworkManager and ModemManager in Linux to automatically establish and maintain a connection

Question

How do I select specific bands on my Telit module?

Solution

The AT command AT#BND can be used to select what specific GSM, UMTS and LTE bands that you want to be active on your module.

If you are experiencing poor DL or UL speeds, one solutions may be to only select the bands that you know are available, which can increase the transfer speeds.


When entering AT#BND? it will return a reply looking like (for example):
AT#BND?
#BND: 0,18,A7E0BB0F38DF,42 (for Generic)
OK

(Please note that the following examples are when using a LM960A18)

The "0" is referring to GSM bands, "18" to UMTS bands, "A7E0BB0F38DF" to LTE bands and "42" to LTE extended bands.

Starting at the GSM band (at chapter "Select Band - #BND" in the AT command reference manual) we can see that 0 corresponds to "GSM 900MHz + DCS 1800MHz (default value depending on module)"

In the same chapter we can read that 18 corresponds to 2100MHz (FDD I) + 1900MHz (FDD II) + 1700MHz (FDD IV) +
850MHz (FDD V) + 900MHz (FDD VIII) + JAPAN1800(FDD IX) + JAPAN800(FDD XIX) (default value depending on product)"

Now for LTE, which is probably what is a little tricky to understand. If we start the Windows Calculator and change to Programmer mode. If you copy the "A7E0BB0F38DF" into the calculator window it should convert it to binary.
HEX: A7E0 BB0F 38DF
BIN: 1010 0111 1110 0000 1011 1011 0000 1111 0011 1000 1101 1111

If you look at the line of BIN above you can see what band are active (1) and which are not (0). Looking from right to left, the first bit corresponds to B1, second bit to B2, third bit B3, and so on…

HEX: A7E0 BB0F 38DF
BIN: 1010 0111 1110 0000 1011 1011 0000 1111 0011 1000 1101 1111
Selected bands: B1+B2+B3+B4+B5+B7+B8+B12+B13+B14+B17+B18+B19+B20+B25+B26+B28+B29+B30+B32+B38+B39+B40+B41+B42+B43+B46+B48

So if I, for example, only want the GSM bands "GSM 900MHz + DCS 1800MHz", the UMTS band "1900MHz (FDD II)" and LTE bands "B1, B4, B7, B28" I would enter the following:

AT#BND=0,1,8000049

Since the first "0" corresponds to "GSM 900MHz + DCS 1800MHz", the "1" corresponds to "1900MHz (FDD II)" and lastly "8000049" corresponds to B1, B4, B7 and B28 as shown below:

Bands: B1, B4, B7, B28
Binary: 1000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0100 1001
Hexadecimal: 800 0049


For further information please take a look at the AT command user guide available on the product's specific page under "technical documentation", which is available for download once logged in.

Question

How to connect the Telit LM940A11 to a Mikrotik board using RouterOS?

Solution

It is recommended to have a generic mPCIe to USB adapter available to easily configure, firmware update and troubleshoot the module if needed. Such as the following adapter: https://techship.com/products/mpcie-to-usb-adapter-card/.

First, make sure that your MiktroTik board is compatible with the module by comparing the boards pin-out configuration with the modules (found in the hardware design guide).

If you have not used RouterOS or WinBox before, please refer to this guide from MikroTiks wiki page for first time start up: https://help.mikrotik.com/docs/display/ROS/First+Time+Configuration.

Make sure RouterOS is running at least version 6.46. In order to upgrade or downgrade, please follow these instructions: https://help.mikrotik.com/docs/display/ROS/Upgrading+and+installation.

Open the RouterOS terminal. Change the boot delay time to make sure the module is fully booted before the board tries to connect. This is done by going to:
/system routerboard settings
and changing "boot-delay" to 15 (seconds).

In order to use your module in RouterOS the network interface need to be set to ECM and USB 2.0 only mode. This is done by using AT commands. If you are unsure on how to send AT commands to your module, please follow this FAQ: https://techship.com/faq/how-can-i-send-at-commands-to-a-cellular-module/.

To change the network interface to ECM mode send the following AT command:
AT#USBCFG=3

The modem device will reset automatically and new USB composition is applied from the next boot up time, if this command is done successfully. Hence, in order to use "AT#USBCFG?" to double check that the new network interface was set, you may need to change the COM port.

To force the module to USB 2.0 mode only send the AT command found below. Please see this FAQ for further details: https://techship.com/faq/minipcie-based-cellular-modules-supporting-usb3-are-not-detected-in-the-host-system/.
AT#USBSWITCH=1

Now, connect your module to your MikroTik board.

Your module should now appear in the Interface list found under "Interfaces > LTE".

Question

How to use the SIMCom SIM7600 with my MikroTik board running RouterOS?

Solution

It is recommended to have a generic mPCIe to USB adapter available to easily configure, firmware update and troubleshoot the module if needed. Such as the following adapter: https://techship.com/products/mpcie-to-usb-adapter-card/.

First, make sure that your MiktroTik board is compatible with the module by comparing the boards pin-out configuration with the modules (found in the hardware design guide).

If you have not used RouterOS or WinBox before, please refer to this guide from MikroTiks wiki page for first time start up: https://help.mikrotik.com/docs/display/ROS/First+Time+Configuration.

Make sure RouterOS is running at least version 6.x. In order to upgrade or downgrade, please follow these instructions: https://help.mikrotik.com/docs/display/ROS/Upgrading+and+installation.

Open the RouterOS terminal. Change the boot delay time to make sure the module is fully booted before the board tries to connect. This is done by going to:
/system routerboard settings
and changing "boot-delay" to 15 (seconds).

In order to use your module in RouterOS the network interface need to be set to Rmnet mode (this is the default mode, so next step may be skipped). This is done by using AT commands. If you are unsure on how to send AT commands to your module, please follow this FAQ: https://techship.com/faq/how-can-i-send-at-commands-to-a-cellular-module/.

To change the network interface to Rmnet mode send the following AT command:
AT+CUSBPIDSWITCH=9001,1,1

The modem device will reset automatically and new USB composition is applied from the next boot up time, if this command is done successfully. Hence, in order to use "AT+CUSBPIDSWITCH?" to double check that the new network interface was set, you may need to change the COM port.

Now, connect your module to your MikroTik board.

Your module should now appear in the Interface list found under "Interfaces > LTE".

Question

How do we enable basic GPS tracking with the Telit LM960A18?

Solution

Default mode is that the GPS/GNSS controller is powered down. To power up the GPS enter the following AT command.
AT$GPSP=1

Please make sure that your GPS antenna har direct skyview.

The LM960A18 can use an active GPS antenna. If possible, an active antenna is to be recommended over a passive antenna. The module can feed the GNSS antenna port with maximum of 100 mA and between 2.9 V to 3.15 V.

To enable the use of an active GPS antenna you should use the AT command AT$GPSANTPORT. By setting it equal to 3 you have enabled the use of an active antenna. Setting it equal to 4 also enables the use of an active antenna but with high gain.
AT$GPSANTPORT=3

You can use the command $GPSACP to get the GPS position in the following format: UTC time, latitude, longitude, HDOP, altitude, fix, course over ground, speed over ground (km/h), speed over ground (knots), date, number of satellites in use.

Remember that you may have to wait a while from activating the GPS until you get a fix, until that your response will look something like "$GPSACP: ,,,,,1,,,,,". You simply have to wait (and double check that you use the correct antenna in the correct connector). From a "cold start" in perfect conditions it may take up to 40 seconds to get a fix, and if everything is not perfect this can take a much longer time.
AT$GPSACP

To activate an unsolicited streaming of GPS data (in NMEA format) through the NMEA port use the AT command AT$GPSNMUN. To enable set it equal to 1:
AT$GPSNMUN=1

Once enabled you can choose which of the following data you want: Global Positioning System Fix Data, Geographic Position - Latitude/Longitude, GPS DOP and Active Satellites, GPS Satellites in View, Recommended Minimum Specific GPS Data, Course Over Ground and Ground Speed. To enable all you enter: (If you only want a couple, put 1 at the ones you want to enable and 0 at the ones you do not want).
AT$GPSNMUN=1,1,1,1,1,1,1

You can change the GPS quality of service (QoS). This is done by the AT command AT$GPSQOS. To see what curren QoS parameters that are set enter AT$GPSQOS? and to see the supported values enter AT$GPSQOS=?. For exemple you can enter the following to get low horizontal and vertical accuracy and a low response time. This is greatly further explained in chapter 5.6.2.9 in the AT commands guide.
AT$GPSQOS=1800000,990,150,0,0,0

For further explanations of the AT commands look at chapter 5.6.2 in the AT command guide, found under "Technical Documentation" on the product page https://techship.com/products/telit-lm960a18-lte-cat-18-mpcie/).

Question

How-to guide: How can we control, configure and establish a simple data connection for a cellular module in Linux systems using the open source ModemManager tool for modem control and connection management.

Solution

ModemManager is a open source tool for Linux that can be used to communicate with cellular devices for configuration, status check, connection triggering etc. It is capable of communicate over several types of device control channels such as QMI/RMNET, MBIM, MODEM / AT command etc.

It is hosted by the Freedesktop.org community and driven by Aleksander Morgado and other contributors, please visit https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/ModemManager/ for latest information, source code, API reference manuals, debugging tips, contribution, mailing list etc.

Keep in mind that ModemManager is not directly developed or driven by cellular device vendors and the compatibility cannot be guaranteed for the specific device you aim to use. Some vendors contribute with code to make their devices fully compatible, while others don't. However many cellular devices can be set to expose standardized types of USB network interface and control channel such as MBIM interface by USB-IF or the Qualcomm proprietary interface QMI that ModemManager will try to identify, and often manage to work successfully with.

Before continuing with ModemManager, a good thing to ensure is that you have common Linux driver modules available in your kernel build.
You can compare your own systems kernel config with the ones listed in the following FAQ:
Common Linux kernel modules and configs necessary for communicating with cellular modules over USB interface
Selections of these are commonly used by cellular devices and need to be available in order to have device drivers correctly loaded when devices are detected.

Start by installing ModemManager and its dependencies to your Linux system.
You can build it from source code release tarball found at freedesktop.org (install instructions included in the archive)
If you have a package manager in your Linux distribution, it can usually be installed through them also.
E.g. on Ubuntu using apt to install it and related dependencies:
apt install modemmanager libmbim-utils libqmi-utils

Keep in mind that Linux distributions sometimes rely on fairly old releases in their repositories and the development of ModemManager, libqmi and libmbim are on-going continuously. So is also the development of the cellular devices when the cellular technologies evolve. It is therefore recommended that you have a fairly recent version of ModemManager, libqmi and libmbim running in your system as well as when it comes to kernel version since the driver modules sometimes acquire patch fixes to be compatible with new chipset features etc.
Check Freedesktop.org pages for details on the latest ModemManager, NetworkManager, Libqmi and Libmbim releases.

Once you've installed ModemManager and rebooted your system, the service daemon should be running already in background.
Mmcli is the related command line interface tool which can be used to interact with ModemManager daemon through command line commands.

Check the version by command:
mmcli -V
<< mmcli 1.13.0
<< Copyright (2011 - 2020) Aleksander Morgado
<< License GPLv2+: GNU GPL version 2 or later
<< This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
<< There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

Print general mmcli help message:
mmcli --help

ModemManager normally listen, probes and detects cellular devices automatically when operating correctly but a forced scan can be triggered with command:
mmcli --scan-modems
<< successfully requested to scan devices

To list detected cellular devices use command:
mmcli --list-modems
<< /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0 [Sierra Wireless, Incorporated] MC7455

Here ModemManager have detected a Sierra Wireless cellular device and it has here been given the the identifier number 0 by ModemManager.

To acquire more device information and status use the --modem command and identifier value.
mmcli --modem=0
<< -----------------------------
<< General | dbus path: /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0
<< | device id: 3a2f5fad8e91dbf417694f23165017c1f8a6e061
<< -----------------------------
<< Hardware | manufacturer: Sierra Wireless, Incorporated
<< | model: MC7455
<< | firmware revision: SWI9X30C_02.32.11.00 r8042 CARMD-EV-FRMWR2 2019/05/15 21:52:20
<< | carrier config: default
<< | h/w revision: 1.0
<< | supported: gsm-umts, lte
<< | current: gsm-umts, lte
<< | equipment id: 359072066171840
<< -----------------------------
<< System | device: /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:14.0/usb3/3-2
<< | drivers: qcserial, qmi_wwan
<< | plugin: sierra
<< | primary port: cdc-wdm0
<< | ports: cdc-wdm0 (qmi), wwan1 (net), ttyUSB2 (at), wwan0 (net),
<< | cdc-wdm1 (qmi), ttyUSB1 (gps), ttyUSB0 (qcdm)
<< -----------------------------
<< Status | lock: sim-pin
<< | unlock retries: sim-pin (3), sim-puk (10), sim-pin2 (0), sim-puk2 (10)
<< | state: locked
<< | power state: on
<< | signal quality: 0% (cached)
<< -----------------------------
<< Modes | supported: allowed: 3g; preferred: none
<< | allowed: 4g; preferred: none
<< | allowed: 3g, 4g; preferred: 4g
<< | allowed: 3g, 4g; preferred: 3g
<< | current: allowed: 3g, 4g; preferred: 4g
<< -----------------------------
<< Bands | supported: utran-1, utran-3, utran-4, utran-5, utran-8, utran-2,
<< | eutran-1, eutran-2, eutran-3, eutran-4, eutran-5, eutran-7, eutran-8,
<< | eutran-12, eutran-13, eutran-20, eutran-25, eutran-26, eutran-29,
<< | eutran-30, eutran-41
<< | current: utran-1, utran-3, utran-4, utran-5, utran-8, utran-2,
<< | eutran-1, eutran-2, eutran-3, eutran-4, eutran-5, eutran-7, eutran-8,
<< | eutran-12, eutran-13, eutran-20, eutran-25, eutran-26, eutran-29,
<< | eutran-30, eutran-41
<< -----------------------------
<< IP | supported: ipv4, ipv6, ipv4v6
<< -----------------------------
<< SIM | dbus path: /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/SIM/0

A detailed summary of device status, configs and system drivers, paths and IDs are returned.

Currently the device status indicates that inserted SIM card is PIN locked, so a unlock by --pin command is necessary:
mmcli --modem=0 --sim=0 --pin=****
<< successfully sent PIN code to the SIM

Now we can change device state to enabled using command:
mmcli --modem=0 --enable
<< successfully enabled the modem

if we're check device status again we can see that device:
mmcli --modem=0

<< --------------------------------
<< Status | lock: sim-puk2
<< | unlock retries: sim-pin (3), sim-puk (10), sim-pin2 (0), sim-puk2 (10)
<< | state: registered
<< | power state: on
<< | access tech: lte
<< | signal quality: 96% (recent)

<< 3GPP | imei: 359072066171840
<< | operator id: 24002
<< | operator name: 3
<< | registration: home
<< --------------------------------
<< 3GPP EPS | ue mode of operation: csps-2
<< --------------------------------
<< SIM | dbus path: /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/SIM/0


The status output shows that devices is registered in network using LTE technology with a good signal strength.

It is now time to activate the data connection with --simple-connect command.
ModemManager will tie the data bearer for our given subscription APN to the qmi_wwan network interface, typically named wwan0 (unless renamed by Linux distribution or user)
Fill in the details as below but for your modem number, subscription APN and the IP type it can work with (ipv4 / ipv6 ipv4v6)
mmcli -m 0 --simple-connect='apn=data.tre.se,ip-type=ipv4v6'
<< successfully connected the modem

if we check modem status again we can see that a bearer have been established.
mmcli --modem=0

<< --------------------------------
<< Bearer | dbus path: /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Bearer/0


The bearer have got identifier number 0 so we can request more details for it to acquire the IP details:

mmcli --modem=0 --bearer=0
<< ------------------------------------
<< General | dbus path: /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Bearer/0
<< | type: default
<< ------------------------------------
<< Status | connected: yes
<< | suspended: no
<< | interface: wwan1
<< | ip timeout: 20
<< ------------------------------------
<< Properties | apn: data.tre.se
<< | roaming: allowed
<< | ip type: ipv4v6
<< ------------------------------------
<< IPv4 configuration | method: static
<< | address: 2.68.206.100
<< | prefix: 29
<< | gateway: 2.68.206.101
<< | dns: 80.251.201.177, 80.251.201.178
<< | mtu: 1500
<< ------------------------------------
<< IPv6 configuration | method: static
<< | address: 2a02:aa1:1010:b6bb:6d12:d0dc:978e:3982
<< | prefix: 64
<< | gateway: 2a02:aa1:1010:b6bb:21ea:c721:62c3:9760
<< | dns: 2a02:aa0::55, 2a02:aa0::56
<< | mtu: 1500
<< ------------------------------------
<< Statistics | duration: 450
<< | bytes rx: 6693
<< | attempts: 1
<< | total-duration: 450
<< | total-bytes rx: 6693

From here we can see the IP details we've been assigned by the cellular network.
ModemManager does not assign IPv4 address details to the cellular modules network interface in Linux by itself.
When ModemManager is used in conjunction with NetworkManager and the cellular connection is managed by it, then the IPv4 address details will be collected by NetworkManager through ModemManager and automatically assigned to network interface when connection is established.
If the system does not implement NetworkManager, then the IP and routing configuration needs to be handled by user software/scripting.

Example:
Enable network interface in Linux:
ip link set wwan0 up

Set the IPv4 address acquired from bearer information above, the CIDR subnet mask can always be set to 32:
ip addr add 2.68.206.100/32 dev wwan0

Disable ARP:
ip link set dev wwan0 arp off

Set MTU value acquired from network:
ip link set dev wwan0 mtu 1500

Add a default or other type of route to the cellular network device (e.g. with a metric to set which route to prefer)
ip route add default dev wwan0 metric 200

Add the DNS servers reported by cellular network or use other public/desired ones.
DNS server addresses are handled in different ways depending on the Linux distribution and network manager used. Therefore please refer to related dist documentation for best practice to add / maintain DNS server addresses in your specific system.
sh -c "echo 'nameserver 80.251.201.177' >> /etc/resolv.conf"
sh -c "echo 'nameserver 80.251.201.178' >> /etc/resolv.conf"

We should now have a network interface passing data successfully, we can try it out by doing ping requests:
IPv4 data:
ping -4 -c 4 -I wwan0 8.8.8.8
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) from 2.68.206.100 wwan0: 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=1 ttl=57 time=50.8 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=2 ttl=57 time=48.8 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=3 ttl=57 time=24.0 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=4 ttl=57 time=44.8 ms

--- 8.8.8.8 ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3005ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 23.979/42.115/50.840/10.694 ms

IPv6 data:
ping -6 -c 4 -I wwan0 2600::
PING 2600::(2600::) from 2a02:aa1:1010:b6bb:8962:7405:b81c:7627 wwan0: 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=1 ttl=47 time=179 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=2 ttl=47 time=176 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=3 ttl=47 time=175 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=4 ttl=47 time=177 ms

--- 2600:: ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3004ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 175.411/176.935/179.268/1.446 ms

Related products
Huawei ME909u-521 - EU/ASIA
Huawei ME909u-523D - US - AT&T
Huawei ME909u-521 Mini PCI Express - EU/ASIA
Huawei ME909u-523D Mini PCI Express - US - AT&T
Huawei MS2131i-8 USB-stick
Huawei ME909s-821 mPCIe
Huawei ME909s-821 LGA
Huawei ME909s-120 mPCIe EU
Huawei ME909s-120 LGA EU
SimCom SIM7100E LTE SMT EU
SimCom SIM7100E LTE mPCIe EU
SimCom SIM7100A LTE mPCIe US
SimCom SIM7100C LTE mPCIe China
Sierra Wireless MC7455 LTE Cat 6
Sierra Wireless EM7455 LTE Cat 6
SimCom SIM7100E LTE mPCIe SIM
Sierra Wireless MC7430 mPCIe
Sierra Wireless EM7430 LTE Cat 6
SIMCom SIM7500A LTE SMT US
SIMCom SIM7500E LTE SMT EU
SIMCom SIM7500E LTE mPCIe EU
SIMCom SIM7500SA LTE mPCIe Audio
SIMCom SIM7000E CAT-M/NB-IoT SMT
Telit HE910-G HSPA+, GPS, mPCIe
Telit HE910-G-SIM HSPA+, GPS, miniPCIe, SIM card holder
Telit HE910-D HSPA+, miniPCIe, Global
Telit HE910-D-SIM HSPA+, miniPCIe, SIM card holder
Telit LM940A11 LTE CAT-11, GPS, mPCIe
Telit LE910-EU V2 LTE CAT-4, mPCIe
Telit LE910-SV V2 LTE CAT-4, Verizon, mPCIe
Telit LE910-NA V2 LTE CAT-4, AT T, TM, mPCIe
Telit LE910-AU V2 LTE CAT-4, Telstra, mPCIe
Telit HE910-GL SIM UMTS, miniPCIe, SIM card holder
Telit HE910-G (Voice) HSPA+ LGA
Telit HE910-DG HSPA+ LGA
Telit HE910-EUD HSPA LGA
Telit LE910-NA1 LTE CAT-1 LGA
Telit LE910-EU1 LTE CAT-1 LGA
Telit LE910-SV1 LTE CAT-1 LGA
Telit LE910-EU V2 LTE CAT-4 LGA
Telit LE910-NA V2 LTE CAT-4 LGA
Telit LE910D1-E1 LTE CAT-1 LGA
Huawei MS2372h-153 LTE USB Dongle EU
SIMCom SIM7600E-H LTE SMT EU
SIMCom SIM7600E-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe EU
Sierra Wireless EM7565 LTE CAT-12
SIMCom SIM7600E-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe SIM
Huawei MS2372h-517 LTE USB Dongle US
SIMCom SIM7600A-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe Audio
Huawei MS2372h-607 LTE USB Dongle Asia
Telit LE910-NA V2 LTE CAT-4, S.SKU, mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600SA-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600A-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe US
SIMCom SIM7600V-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe Audio Verizon
SIMCom SIM7000G
Fibocom NL668-EAU mPCIe LTE CAT-4
SIMCom SIM7600SA-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe with SIM holder
SIMCom SIM7600E LTE CAT-1 mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600SA LTE CAT-1 mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600E-H LTE CAT 4 -mPCIE with Audio
Telit LM960 LTE CAT-18, GPS, mPCIe
Sierra Wireless EM7511 LTE CAT-12
Sierra Wireless EM7565, CAT-12, M.2 CBRS Enabled
SIMCom SIM7000E CAT-M/NB-IoT PCIE
SIMCom SIM7000G CAT-M/NB-IoT/GSM miniPCIe
Fibocom NL678-E mPCIe LTE CAT-6
SIMCom SIM7600A-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe-SIM
Sierra Wireless MC-WP7607 LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
Telit LE910C4-NF LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
Telit LE910-NA V2 LTE CAT-4, S.SKU LGA
Telit LE910B1-NA S.SKU
Telit LE910C1-NS LTE CAT-1 Sprint mPCIe
Telit LE910-SVL LTE CAT-1
Telit HE910-GL HSPA+ LGA
SIMCom SIM7000A CAT-M/NB-IoT SMT Verizon
SIMCom SIM7000A CAT-M/NB-IoT SMT AT&T
SIMCom SIM7906E LTE CAT-6 M.2
SIMCom SIM7906E LTE CAT-6 mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7000A CAT-M/NB-IoT mPCIe
Telit HE910-NAD HSPA+ LGA
Telit LE910-SVG LTE CAT-3 LGA
Telit HE910-NAR HSPA LGA
Telit HE910-D HSPA+ LGA
Telit LE910C1-NA LTE CAT-1 AT&T LGA
Telit LE910C1-NS LTE CAT-1 Sprint LGA
Telit LE910-NAG LTE CAT-3 AT&T LGA
Telit LE910-SVG LTE CAT-3 mPCIe
Telit LE910-NVG LTE CAT-3 LGA
SIMCom SIM7600G-H LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
Telit LE910-NA1 S.SKU
Telit LE910-JN1
Telit LE910C1-AP
Telit LE910C1-EU
Telit LE910B1-NA
Telit LE910B1-SA
Telit LE910-AU V2
Telit LE910-SV V2
Telit LE910B4-NA
Telit LE910C4-NF
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910-SV1)
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910-EU1)
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910-JN1)
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910-NA1)
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910C1-AP)
Telit LE910-PCI (LE910C1-NA)
Telit LE910C1-EU LTE CAT-1 mPCIe
Telit LE910C4-EU LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
Telit LE910C4-EU LTE CAT-4 mPCIe SIM
Telit LE910C1-NF
SIMCOM SIM8200EA-M.2 5G
Telit FN980m 5G M.2
Telit LM940A11, HW Rev. 2, LTE CAT-11, GPS, mPCIe
Telit LE910C4-NF LTE CAT-4 mPCIe SIM
SIMCom SIM7912G LTE CAT-12 M.2
Telit LM960A18 LTE CAT-18 mPCIe
Telit LE910C1-EU LTE CAT-1 mPCIe SIM
Telit LE910C1-AP LTE CAT-1 mPCIe SIM
Telit LE910C1-NF LTE CAT-1 mPCIe
Telit LE910C4-AP LTE CAT-4 mPCIe SIM
Telit LE910C4-CN LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
Sierra Wireless EM7411 NAM
Sierra Wireless MC7411 NAM
Sierra Wireless EM7421 EMEA/APAC
Sierra Wireless MC7421 EMEA/APAC
Sierra Wireless EM7431 Japan
Sierra Wireless MC7431 Japan
Huawei MS2372h-158 LTE USB Dongle EU
Huawei MS2372h-518 LTE USB Dongle US
Huawei MS2372h-608 LTE USB Dongle Asia
Sierra Wireless EM9190 5G NR M.2
Huawei ME909s-120p V2 mPCIe
Huawei ME909s-120 V2 LGA
Sierra Wireless MC-WP7610 LTE CAT-4 mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600G-H R2 mPCIe
SIMCom SIM7600NA-H mPCIe
Telit FN980 5G M.2 sub-6
Sierra Wireless EM9191 5G sub-6 M.2
Sierra Wireless EM7690 LTE CAT-20
Alcatel IK41VE LTE USB Dongle EU
Alcatel IK41US LTE USB Dongle US
Alcatel IK41CQ LTE USB Dongle APAC
Alcatel IK41UD LTE USB Dongle LATAM
Alcatel IK41UC LTE USB Dongle NA
Question

How to establish a basic data connection using Sierra Wireless GobiNet driver and AT commands

Solution

A basic data connection can be established with AT commands when the Sierra Wireless module is used in USB mode: Qmi/Rmnet. This is supported when using the Sierra Wireless Windows drivers or the GobiNet + GobiSerial drivers. Please be aware that this is not supported when using the Linux in-kernel driver qmi_wwan.

Download and install the host OS drivers from the Techship product webpage. For Linux drivers follow the instructions in the "Linux QMI SDK Application Developers Guide". Make sure to build the GobiNet driver with RAWIP parameter set to 1.

When the drivers are set up correctly in Linux the USB endpoints should be bound as following:

usb-devices
T: Bus=02 Lev=01 Prnt=01 Port=03 Cnt=01 Dev#= 2 Spd=5000 MxCh= 0
D: Ver= 3.10 Cls=00(>ifc ) Sub=00 Prot=00 MxPS= 9 #Cfgs= 1
P: Vendor=1199 ProdID=9091 Rev=00.06
S: Manufacturer=Sierra Wireless, Incorporated
S: Product=Sierra Wireless EM7565 Qualcomm® Snapdragon™ X16 LTE-A
S: SerialNumber=UF74248663020633
C: #Ifs= 4 Cfg#= 1 Atr=a0 MxPwr=896mA
I: If#=0x0 Alt= 0 #EPs= 2 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=ff Prot=ff Driver=GobiSerial
I: If#=0x2 Alt= 0 #EPs= 3 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=00 Prot=00 Driver=GobiSerial
I: If#=0x3 Alt= 0 #EPs= 3 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=00 Prot=00 Driver=GobiSerial
I: If#=0x8 Alt= 0 #EPs= 3 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=ff Prot=ff Driver=GobiNet

First, start by enabling the modules network interface bound to the GobiNet driver, default name is usually wwan0. If not found check e.g in "dmesg" what it has been renamed to. Write:

ip link set wwan0 up

Now access the serial modem interface accepting AT commands with a serial interpreter.
In Windows it is the interface found under modem tree in device manager. You can e.g. use a tool like Teraterm to communicate manually with the module.

In Linux the GobiSerial interfaces are listed as ttyUSB interfaces in the /dev/ folder, usually /dev/ttyUSB2 is bound to the modem interface accepting AT commands. Tools like minicom can be used to communicate over a serial interface. For example: minicom -D /dev/ttyUSB2

Check that you get an OK reply from the command AT. Now perform normal initiation commands to have module registered in network, such as setting normal operational mode, entering PIN code if required for SIM card etc.

Define correct APN for your cellular subscription with the AT+CGDCONT command if it is not already correctly entered:

AT+CGDCONT=1, "IPV4V6", "your.operators.apn"

Now you can activate the data connection with the command AT!SCACT=state,pid. For example activating the connection for CGDCONT profile 1:

AT!SCACT=1,1

Once OK is received, you can go ahead and execute a DHCP client on the GobiNet network interface from your Linux host. (In Windows this is all done automatically). For example uou can use dhclient in ubuntu:

dhclient -v wwan0

Now we should have a working network connection in your system over the modules network interface. You can for example test it in Linux by pinging Googles name server:

ping -I wwan0 8.8.8.8
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) from 10.70.245.136 wwan0: 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=1 ttl=53 time=176 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=2 ttl=53 time=79.6 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=3 ttl=53 time=69.5 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=4 ttl=53 time=67.6 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=5 ttl=53 time=55.5 ms
^C
--- 8.8.8.8 ping statistics ---
5 packets transmitted, 5 received, 0% packet loss, time 4008ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 55.533/89.558/175.584/43.687 ms

Please relate to the modules AT commands guide for full explanations of the AT commands. This is a brief example of how to establish a network connection. For automating the procedure additional status checks are highly recommended as well as looking into integrating Sierra Wireless Linux QMI SDK instead of only relying on legacy AT commands.

In Windows 8 and later systems it is recommended to set the module in MBIM USB mode instead of the default QMI/RMNET mode to enable support for Windows built in connection manager. Please see the FAQ section for more details on how to do so.

Question

We cannot acquire an DHCP address over qmi_wwan driver when using Raspbian Linux OS?

Solution

Raspbian uses dhcpd to probe all available network interfaces found in the system, which is problematic for the qmi_wwan driver interface, if it is done before being configured properly when using cellular modules supporting only Raw-IP.

This can be avoided by setting dhcpd to deny the related cellular module network interface (most often named wwan0 by the system).
Add to the /etc/dhcpcd.conf file in Raspbian the following line (in the end):
denyinterfaces wwan0

Now, restart the system (preferably re-power it) so cellular module fully restarts also.

At next startup, the settings should be applied and you can now configure and use the qmi interface as described in some of the others faq's, found on the Techship webpage.

Question

How can we activate and use dual stack IPv4 and IPv6 functionality on the Gosuncn ZTE Welink ME3630 series cellular modules in Linux?

Solution

This can be done by configuring and using the Gosuncn ZTE Welink ME3630 module in Linux the following way:

Check with AT commands that you are using the most recent firmware version on the cellular module:
AT+ZVN
ME3630E1CV1.0B19 [Jan 15 2019 16:03:19]

The module have to be switched from default USB mode in order to support this, in this mode it uses RNDIS interface and drivers instead in host.
This mode can be switched with AT commands:
AT+ZSWITCH=x
AT+ZADSET=r
Restart module:
AT+ZRST

The module will restart now and appear in system with the following USB IDs:
usb-devices
T: Bus=03 Lev=01 Prnt=01 Port=01 Cnt=03 Dev#= 9 Spd=480 MxCh= 0
D: Ver= 2.00 Cls=00(>ifc ) Sub=00 Prot=00 MxPS=64 #Cfgs= 1
P: Vendor=19d2 ProdID=0601 Rev=03.18
S: Manufacturer=Android
S: Product=Android
S: SerialNumber=b950269c
C: #Ifs= 5 Cfg#= 1 Atr=a0 MxPwr=500mA
I: If#=0x0 Alt= 0 #EPs= 1 Cls=e0(wlcon) Sub=01 Prot=03 Driver=rndis_host
I: If#=0x1 Alt= 0 #EPs= 2 Cls=0a(data ) Sub=00 Prot=00 Driver=rndis_host
I: If#=0x2 Alt= 0 #EPs= 2 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=ff Prot=ff Driver=option
I: If#=0x3 Alt= 0 #EPs= 3 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=00 Prot=00 Driver=option
I: If#=0x4 Alt= 0 #EPs= 3 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=00 Prot=00 Driver=option

If the option driver is not attached initially it can be done so by force loading the driver:
modprobe option
echo 19d2 0601 > /sys/bus/usb-serial/drivers/option1/new_id

Activate the network interface in the Linux host system (check e.g. with dmesg what system named it to):
ip link set enp0s20u2 up

Make sure you have a cellular subscription and APN that allow usage of IPV4 and IPV6 functionality combined.
Default configuration with setting a empty string lets the module subscribe for an APN from cellular network:
AT+CGDCONT=1,"IPV4V6",""
With defined APN:
AT+CGDCONT=1,"IPV4V6","my.apn"
If you have to modify/set AT+CGDCONT, please re-register in cellular network e.g. by toggling:
AT+CFUN=0
AT+CFUN=1
(Enter PIN again with AT+CPIN if necessary)

Check that you are registered in the cellular network and module are attached on packet switched network and have got an IP:
AT+CGCONTRDP
+CGCONTRDP: 1,5,BREDBAND.TRE.SE,2.70.254.24,,80.251.201.177,80.251.201.178

Now start the network interface data connection:
With empty string APN details in second parameter, then module try to request them from network:
AT+ZECMCALL=1,"",3
Or with APN defined:
AT+ZECMCALL=1,"my.apn",3

You should receive bellow if successful:
+ZECMCALL: CONNECT
OK

Check the status of the network interface activation, both IPV4 and IPV6 information should be listed as bellow if successful:
AT+ZECMCALL?
+ZECMCALL: IPV4, 2.70.254.24, 2.70.254.25, 80.251.201.177, 80.251.201.178
+ZECMCALL: IPV6, 2a02:aa1:1018:5fc2:b532:a78c:7e20:fedb, , 2a02:aa0::55, 2a02:a6
OK

In Linux you should now run a DHCP client on the network interface in order to acquire an IPV4 adress:
dhclient -v enp0s20u2
Listening on LPF/enp0s20u2/56:60:35:1b:9f:7f
Sending on LPF/enp0s20u2/56:60:35:1b:9f:7f
Sending on Socket/fallback
DHCPDISCOVER on enp0s20u2 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 3 (xid=0x914b302a)
DHCPOFFER of 2.70.254.24 from 2.70.254.25
DHCPREQUEST for 2.70.254.24 on enp0s20u2 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 (xid=0x2a304b91)
DHCPACK of 2.70.254.24 from 2.70.254.25 (xid=0x914b302a)
bound to 2.70.254.24 -- renewal in 19393 seconds.

Try ping an IPv4 address using the module network interface:
ping -4 -I enp0s20u2 8.8.8.8
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) from 2.70.254.24 enp0s20u2: 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=1 ttl=55 time=31.1 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=2 ttl=55 time=26.8 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=3 ttl=55 time=44.7 ms
^C
--- 8.8.8.8 ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 5ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 26.776/34.198/44.722/7.650 ms

Try ping an IPv6 address over the module interface:
ping -6 -I enp0s20u2 2600::
PING 2600::(2600::) from 2a02:aa1:1018:5fc2:c2:afb2:2c6e:66f3 enp0s20u2: 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=1 ttl=47 time=200 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=2 ttl=47 time=177 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=3 ttl=47 time=177 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=4 ttl=47 time=176 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=5 ttl=47 time=175 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=6 ttl=47 time=174 ms
^C
--- 2600:: ping statistics ---
6 packets transmitted, 6 received, 0% packet loss, time 12ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 174.342/180.176/200.333/9.096 ms

Please note that this functionality is not supported in all firmware versions and target regional variants of the ME3630 series yet. Here tested on the ME3630 E1C version for European target region using ME3630E1CV1.0B19