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How to step by step set up a data connection over QMI interface using qmicli and in-kernel driver qmi_wwan in Linux?
Several cellular modules based on Qualcomm chipsets implements the Qualcomm Qualcomm MSM (QMI) Interface.
There is a open source Linux in-kernel driver supporting this interface and it is called qmi_wwan. This driver can be used together with ModemManager and NetworkManager to automate connection establishment and as a connection manager.
The library libqmi which ModemManager uses can also be used to communicate in a more direct way with the cellular devices over the QMI interface and to step by step do necessary configurations and trigger the data connection over the cellular network.
A selection of cellular modules can be supported:
Using RAW IP kernel configuration:
Sierra Wireless MC74 series, EM74 series, EM75** series
Telit LM940, LM960
Telit LN94x series (requires USB mode switch)
Simcom SIM7500 series, SIM7600 series, SIM7600 -H series
(can be supported in qmi_wwan driver from kernel 4.18 or by applying the following one line qmi_wwan source code patch on previous kernel builds: qmi_wwan: apply SET_DTR quirk to the SIMCOM shared device ID)
Using 802.3 IP framing kernel configuration:
Simcom SIM7100 series
Sierra Wireless MC73**/EM73** series
ModemManager combined with NetworkManager will detect the cellular modules automatically in most cases, please refer to their respective documentations on how to establish a data connection using them.
Example on how to set up the data connection step by step manually with libqmi:
First install the libqmi Linux library e.g. by using your system package manager like apt or preferably latest version from source on the Freedesktop pages for libqmi project: https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/libqmi/
Verify that you have the Linux in-kernel qmi_wwan driver installed and attached for the cellular modules QMI interface over USB:
Can look e.g. like this:
|__ Port 1: Dev 3, If 2, Class=Vendor Specific Class, Driver=qmi_wwan, 480M
If the driver is not correctly loaded, please verify that the module is set to expose the correct USB endpoints configuration toward the host system and that you have followed the provided guides from the cellular module vendors, regarding how to implement the module in Linux.
Libqmi expose a command line interface that can be used to communication with the module over QMI interface.
The qmicli help will output information about all commands available:
The cellular modules QMI control interface are usually named cdc-wdm* e.g.:
In order to allow parallel commands to be execute on the module over QMI interface, it is recommended to use the libqmi proxy function. This can be done by including the attribute -p or --device-open-proxy in every qmicli command.
If a SIM pin is required for the SIM card, use command bellow:
qmicli --device=/dev/cdc-wdm0 -p --dms-uim-verify-pin=PIN,1234
The name of the related network interface to QMI control channel can be acquired with the command:
qmicli --device=/dev/cdc-wdm0 --device-open-proxy --get-wwan-iface
The most recent Qualcomm based cellular modules only expose QMI interfaces that can support Raw-IP mode. Sierra Wireless EM/MC74 and EM75 series modules, Telit LM940 and LN940 series for example require this.
Check what IP-mode the host system is configured for:
qmicli --device=/dev/cdc-wdm0 --get-expected-data-format
Check what IP-mode the cellular module require:
qmicli --device=/dev/cdc-wdm0 --device-open-proxy --wda-get-data-format
to change qmi_wwan driver to use Raw-IP.
Disable the network interfaces exposed by the cellular module:
ip link set dev wwan0 down
Trigger the Raw-IP support:
echo Y > /sys/class/net/wwan0/qmi/raw_ip
Enable the network interfaces again:
ip link set dev wwan0 up
Now the data connection in the cellular module can be activated e.g. with a IPv4 type configuration on the specified APN:
qmicli --device=/dev/cdc-wdm0 --device-open-proxy --wds-start-network="ip-type=4,apn=data.tre.se" --client-no-release-cid
Once "Network started" is displayed, you can send a DHCP request on the network interface.
Please note that not all DHCP clients in Linux can support Raw-IP format, udhcpc however support this for IPv4 over Raw-IP.
udhcpc -q -f -n -i wwan0
Disconnect the data bearer and data connection over QMI by command bellow and providing the network handle and CID returned at connection activation:
qmicli --device=/dev/cdc-wdm0 --device-open-proxy --wds-stop-network=NETWORK_HANDLE --client-cid=CID
Additional useful commands:
Request module manufacturer:
qmicli --device=/dev/cdc-wdm0 --device-open-proxy --dms-get-manufacturer
Get module model:
qmicli --device=/dev/cdc-wdm0 --device-open-proxy --dms-get-model
Get firmware version:
qmicli --device=/dev/cdc-wdm0 --device-open-proxy --dms-get-revision
Get module IDs (IMEI etc.):
qmicli --device=/dev/cdc-wdm0 --device-open-proxy --dms-get-ids
Get SIM card status:
qmicli --device=/dev/cdc-wdm0 --device-open-proxy --uim-get-card-status
Recent cellular modules like Sierra Wireless EM7565 require at least libqmi V1.20. Check version with command:
If the connection was successfully set up established, you now have data connectivity. A ping to a remote server using the cellular network interface can for example prove this:
ping -I wwan0 188.8.131.52
The ifconfig Linux tool can show the current details for the network interface:
libqmi is well integrated and supported in ModemManager tool for Linux. ModemManager again is well integrated and supported when using NetworkManager tool in Linux. Please note however that these two tools expect the cellular module interfaces to only be used by them so if you manually want to use the libqmi library or AT commands interfaces, please turn off/disable ModemManager and NetworkManager first.
The libqmi is a generic open source library for Linux systems and QMI protocol from Qualcomm, therefor there are commands only working on selected devices and not necessarily supported on the device you use, resulting in an error message.
How can we establish data connection for cellular modules in Windows 8 and Windows 10 systems?
Microsoft Windows desktop versions starting from Windows 8 and newer have built in data connection manager for WWAN, Wifi etc. that can be used to configure, control and establish the data connection of cellular module that support MBIM interface, which most cellular modules do.
The connection managers settings and controls can be found and accessed on Windows desktop start menu through the network icon (see picture).
The Cellular tab can be found in Windows system settings and if needed the connection APN details can be manually entered through "Advanced options".
How to collect initial diagnostics data and logs for Simcom cellular modules, needed when requesting Techship technical support?
In order to troubleshoot and solve a technical problem, we ask you to please provide information about your host system and logs from the related Simcom module when creating a technical support ticket.
Detailed problem description and in what situations it present or can be reproduced.
Describe the host system:
-Hardware (system board, peripherals...)
-Operating system and detailed versions (E.g. Windows, Linux release, kernel...)
-Drivers and driver versions
Identify the precise details of cellular module found on label:
-SKU/BOM or P/N code
(For RMA returns the IMEI number is mandatory)
If you are running on a Linux based system, please capture the terminal logs bellow:
ls -l /dev/serial/by-id
ls -l /sys/bus/usb-serial/devices
The logs from the cellular module firmware can be acquired by accessing the USB enumerated serial (COM) interfaces accepting AT commands. They can be named modem, AT, PC UI etc. (In Windows device manager, found under modem or serial interfaces). Send the following AT commands bellow to module and capture the output and include them when creating the the technical support ticket.
Test that you get a reply with command:
Command echo enabled:
Basic module info:
Detailed module version info:
Verbose error reporting:
Last error report:
USB endpoint configuration:
List current configuration:
Request UE system info:
Preferred network mode:
Preferred band selection:
Preferred acquisition order:
List network operator info:
Network registration status:
Network EPS registration status:
Packet domain attach status
List APN details/PDP profiles:
PDP profiles attach status:
Show PDP IP address:
RM network interface status:
The support ticket can be created after login at: https://techship.com/technical_support/
How-to change the cellular modulesUSB composition mode to Mobile Broadband Interface Model (MBIM) used by Windows 8 and 10 systems for controlling and establishing data connectivity through the built-in connection manager in Windows?
This is done by sending a set of AT commands to the cellular modules Modem or AT serial interface found in Windows Device Manager. Please see list below for associated AT commands.
(For additional details, refer to the product specific software, ports, and AT commands guides found on the Techship product web pages under technical documentation tab).
After the AT commands have been received by the module and has restarted, the USB interface endpoint composition should have changed to include MBIM interface as well.
You can find the correct Serial COM port number by checking Windows Device Manager, under the Modems drop down -> (right click and see properties for selected COM port info) or under the Ports (COM & LPT) drop down.
Vendor specific commands to use:
Sierra Wireless EM74x0, MC74x0 series module:
(See test command AT!USBCOMP=? for full usage description)
Sierra Wireless EM75xx, EM74x1, MC74x1 series module:
(See test command AT!USBCOMP=? for full usage description)
Sierra Wireless EM73xx, MC73xx series module:
Simcom SIM7100, SIM7500 and SIM7600 series modules:
ZTE Welink ME3630 series:
Telit LE910C1 and LE910C4 series:
Telit LM940 and LM940A11:
Telit LM960 and LM960A18:
Telit LE910 V2 series:
On Huawei and Telit LN94x series modules the USB mode changing is done automatically by the modules Windows drivers based on current Windows version.
Please be aware that some USB mode configurations do not include any serial interfaces, making it impossible to revert the changes using AT commands.
How to use NetworkManager and ModemManager in Linux to automatically establish a cellular data connection and configure IP details?
Using NetworkManager and ModemManager in Linux to automatically establish a connection and configure IP details
In this FAQ we will show how to set up NetworkManager to automatically configure, establish the cellular data connection in your system.
NetworkManager and ModemManager are open source tool for Linux to manage several types of networks and interfaces such as ethernet, wifi, etc. It can also manage cellular WWAN interfaces through the ModemManager tool.
It is hosted by the Freedesktop.org community and driven by Aleksander Morgado and other contributors. please visit https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/NetworkManager and https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/ModemManager/ for latest information, source code, API reference manuals, debugging tips, contribution, mailing list etc.
ModemManager is capable of communicating over several types of device control channels such as QMI/RMNET, MBIM, MODEM / AT command etc. But support for vendor proprietary or out-of-kernel drivers are none or very limited. Such drivers are gobinet, simcom_wwan and other drivers provided by the vendors directly.
Many Linux distributions have NetworkManager and ModemManager pre-installed or they can typically easily be installed through the systems package manager.
In Ubuntu for example apt can install it for you by command if not already installed:
apt install network-manager
Check with commands below that you have both tools installed in system and their versions.
ModemManager (and NetworkManager) are continuously developed for better compatibility with the cellular devices, therefore it is recommend to use a recent version of the tools and in case of problem situations, evaluate the latest versions from source and check the mailing list archives for possible discussions on the problem experienced.
Keep in mind that NetworkManager and ModemManager projects are not directly developed or driven by the cellular device vendors and the compatibility with the device you aim to use can be limited. Some vendors contribute with code to make their devices fully compatible, while others don't. Many cellular devices can be set to expose standardized types of USB network interface and control channel such as MBIM interface by USB-IF or the Qualcomm proprietary interface QMI that ModemManager will try to identify, and often manage to work successfully with but there are exceptions also.
Both NetworkManager and ModemManager have command line interfaces (nmcli and mmcli respectively) where you can interact with the management tools.
Relate to the following FAQ if you want more details for using ModemManager only to configure and control the cellular device but manually establish, maintain the connection and network interface IP address details.
How-to guide: control and set up a data connection in Linux using ModemManager as connection manager?
Have ModemManager list all the cellular device it has detected. Here we use the Alcatel IK41 series with MBIM interface in this example:
/org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0 [Alcatel] Mobilebroadband
General details and status of them modem can be listed with "--modem" option.
General | dbus path: /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0
| device id: 998e478c5b14c75e16bffe6abaacabef22fb2f5b
Hardware | manufacturer: Alcatel
| model: Mobilebroadband
| firmware revision: MPSS.JO.2.0.2.c1.7-00004-9607_
| carrier config: default
| h/w revision: 0
| supported: gsm-umts, lte
| current: gsm-umts, lte
| equipment id:
System | device: /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:14.0/usb3/3-1
| drivers: option1, cdc_mbim
| plugin: Generic
| primary port: cdc-wdm0
| ports: cdc-wdm0 (mbim), ttyUSB0 (at), ttyUSB2 (at), wwan0 (net),
| ttyUSB1 (qcdm)
Status | lock: sim-pin
| unlock retries: sim-pin (3)
| state: locked
| power state: on
| signal quality: 0% (cached)
Modes | supported: allowed: 2g; preferred: none
| allowed: 3g; preferred: none
| allowed: 4g; preferred: none
| allowed: 2g, 3g; preferred: 3g
| allowed: 2g, 3g; preferred: 2g
| allowed: 2g, 4g; preferred: 4g
| allowed: 2g, 4g; preferred: 2g
| allowed: 3g, 4g; preferred: 3g
| allowed: 3g, 4g; preferred: 4g
| allowed: 2g, 3g, 4g; preferred: 4g
| allowed: 2g, 3g, 4g; preferred: 3g
| allowed: 2g, 3g, 4g; preferred: 2g
| current: allowed: 2g, 3g, 4g; preferred: 2g
Bands | supported: egsm, dcs, pcs, g850, utran-1, utran-8, eutran-1, eutran-3,
| eutran-7, eutran-8, eutran-20, eutran-28
| current: egsm, dcs, pcs, g850, utran-1, utran-8, eutran-1, eutran-3,
| eutran-7, eutran-8, eutran-20, eutran-28
IP | supported: ipv4, ipv6, ipv4v6
SIM | dbus path: /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/SIM/0
Check that the cellular device is managed by NetworkManager by not having state "unmanaged" listed for it.
nmcli device status
DEVICE TYPE STATE CONNECTION
cdc-wdm0 gsm disconnected --
enp3s0 ethernet unmanaged --
lo loopback unmanaged --
Now you should create a connection profile in NetworkManager for your specific network carrier and SIM card with the "nmcli connection add" command:
nmcli connection add type gsm ifname '*' con-name '3-sweden' apn 'data.tre.se' connection.autoconnect yes gsm.pin 0000
- type is gsm for all typical cellular connections unless it is of cdma type.
- ifname is the control interface name, in this case cdc-wdm0, wildcard can be used also to have it autoselect.
- con-name is the profile name you want to give it.
- apn is provided by your network carrier and tells the modem what attach point it should use for the data connection.
- connection.autoconnect set to yes will make NetworkManager always try to auto connect and maintain this profile connection.
- gsm.pin lets you provide a pin code for the SIM card, that NetworkManager will try to use if PIN check is enabled for SIM card.
There are several additional commands and attributes available such as username and password settings for the APNs etc. Refer to the NetworkManager help and manual pages for full details on the commands.
If successful you should receive a reply similar to this one:
Connection '3-sweden' (cad6fcbf-2cb1-4796-b7e6-67b9f9635aef) successfully added.
You can check the status now by command:
nmcli device status
DEVICE TYPE STATE CONNECTION
cdc-wdm0 gsm connected 3-sweden
enp3s0 ethernet unmanaged --
lo loopback unmanaged --
Where connected should be listed as state if the connection establishment was successful.
If the connection is not successful or you want more details about the device and connection you can check commands:
You can list the current status with command:
WIFI-HW WIFI WWAN-HW WWAN
enabled enabled enabled enabled
nmcli device show cdc-wdm
GENERAL.STATE: 100 (connected)
IP4.ROUTE: dst = 184.108.40.206/30, nh = 0.0.0.0, mt = 700
IP4.ROUTE: dst = 0.0.0.0/0, nh = 220.127.116.11, mt = 700
IP6.ROUTE: dst = ff00::/8, nh = ::, mt = 256, table=255
IP6.ROUTE: dst = 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11::/64, nh = ::, mt = 700
IP6.ROUTE: dst = ::/0, nh = fe80::21e6:9049:6cfb:8ac3, mt = 1024
IP6.ROUTE: dst = 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11::/64, nh = ::, mt = 256
IP6.ROUTE: dst = ::/0, nh = 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11:21e6:9049:6cfb:8ac3, mt = 700
nmcli connection show
NAME UUID TYPE DEVICE
3-sweden e946017f-2e9c-477b-89ad-4c31e7331d65 gsm cdc-wdm0
Ifconfig should now show the related IP address details already set to the network interface by NetworkManager:
wwan0: flags=4291 mtu 1500
inet 18.104.22.168 netmask 255.255.255.252 broadcast 22.214.171.124
inet6 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11:6474:7254:7b72:eb09 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x0
inet6 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11:1060:3dff:feac:e92f prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x0
ether 12:60:3d:ac:e9:2f txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet)
RX packets 186 bytes 10886 (10.8 KB)
RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0
TX packets 5 bytes 480 (480.0 B)
TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0
You can now for example test the connection over the network interface by sending ping requests.
Testing IPV4 connection:
ping -4 -I wwan0 126.96.36.199
PING 188.8.131.52 (184.108.40.206) from 220.127.116.11 wwan0: 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 18.104.22.168: icmp_seq=1 ttl=118 time=55.8 ms
64 bytes from 22.214.171.124: icmp_seq=2 ttl=118 time=45.4 ms
64 bytes from 126.96.36.199: icmp_seq=3 ttl=118 time=42.9 ms
--- 188.8.131.52 ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 42.918/48.053/55.845/5.601 ms
Testing IPV6 connection: (if your cellular device, network subscription and APN supports it)
ping -6 -I wwan0 2600::
PING 2600::(2600::) from 2a02:aa1:1017:6d11:1060:3dff:feac:e92f wwan0: 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=1 ttl=46 time=172 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=2 ttl=46 time=171 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=3 ttl=46 time=169 ms
64 bytes from 2600::: icmp_seq=4 ttl=46 time=168 ms
--- 2600:: ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3004ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 167.921/170.037/172.272/1.651 ms
The connection is successful and automatic reconnect is working when testing to unplug and plug in the device again.
For additional configurations, commands and available attributes, please relate to the manual pages for NetworkManager and ModemManager.
NetworkManager and ModemManager write log messages to the Linux syslog file /var/log/syslog.
In case of problems with establishing a cellular data connection, please copy the logfile after the problem have appeared and include it in a Techship technical support ticket.
In some situations more detailed debug logs are needed, these can be acquired by changing the log levels for NetworkManager and ModemManager and run them manually.
To capture debug logs, please first disable and stop the normal services:
systemctl stop NetworkManager ModemManager
systemctl disable NetworkManager ModemManager
Run them manually in background with debug level set:
/usr/sbin/ModemManager --log-level=DEBUG &> /dev/null &
/usr/sbin/NetworkManager --log-level=DEBUG &
Reproduce the cellular data connection problem.
Once completed, kill the processes:
killall -TERM NetworkManager ModemManager
Copy the relate messages in syslog to a mm-nm-sys-debug.log logfile:
grep -E 'ModemManager|NetworkManager|systemd|dbus-daemon|dhclient' /var/log/syslog > mm-nm-sys-debug.log
Activate and start the services again:
systemctl enable NetworkManager ModemManager
systemctl start NetworkManager ModemManager
Include the mm-nm-sys-debug.log in a technical support ticket at Techship.com where you describe the issue in details and include other relevant information also such as kernel version, ModemManager and NetworkManager versions, dmesg log etc.
How do we configure the Simcom SIM7100, SIM7500 and SIM7600 series cellular modules for usage in Windows 8 and 10 systems and support Windows built-in connection manager?
The Simcom modules are by default set in a USB configuration used most often by Linux and Windows 7 systems. If you want to use the module in Windows 8, 8.1, 10 systems with the Windows integrated connection manager you have to once configure and set the module to expose Mobile Broadband Interface Model (MBIM) interface as bellow:
Start by installing the latest Simcom series Windows drivers (instructions included in download package). They can be found on on our dedicated product web pages.
In Windows device manager you can now find a serial interface called e.g."SimTech HS-USB AT Port 9001 (COM5)" Memorize the COM* interface number in your system.
Open a command prompt with admin rights (right click Windows icon in bottom left corner). Copy and paste the command bellow, edit port number to match the one in your system and hit enter. The command will then be sent to module overt the serial interface.
ECHO AT+CUSBPIDSWITCH=9003,1,1 >\\.\COM5
If the command is received successfully by module, a restart of the cellular module will be performed and it appears with the new USB endpoints supporting Windows 8 systems and later.
Make sure that all Simcom module end points are correctly loaded in Windows device manager, a system restart might be necessary also.
By clicking the Windows network connection symbol in the start bar or navigating to the "Cellular" topic in Windows system settings you can now activate the connection and configure APN details and enter PIN code if it is necessary for the cellular connection and subscription you have.